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Types of Corneal Disease

Types of Corneal Disease

May 4, 2022
Types of Corneal Disease

The cornea is the clear tissue at the front and center of the eye. The transparent nature of the retina permits light to pass into the eye, through the pupil and lens, and onto the retina at the back. Three layers of the cornea are part of the ocular surface: the outer epithelium, the middle stroma, and the inner endothelium.

Symptoms of Corneal Disease

Corneal Disease

Signs and symptoms of the corneal disease depend to some extent on the type of corneal disease and the specific cause. This includes:

  • Eye pain
  • Blurry vision
  • Excessive tearing
  • Eye redness
  • Extreme sensitivity to light
  • Headache

What are the Types of Corneal Disease?

  • Scleritis. It is a disorder in which the sclera becomes severely inflamed and red. Scleritis is believed to be the result of the body’s immune system overreacting. The type of scleritis you have depends on the location of the inflammation.
  • Episcleritis. It refers to inflammation of your episclera. There’s another clear layer outside of the episclera called the conjunctiva. This inflammation causes your eye to look red and irritated.
  • Infections. Bacterial, fungal, or viral keratitis, as well as parasitic diseases, can trigger a type of corneal disease.
  • Conjunctivitis inflammation. The swelling of the conjunctiva means your eye has become irritated. Chemosis is most often related to allergies. Sometimes a viral or bacterial infection may cause it.

What are the Causes of Corneal Disease?

The causes of corneal disease vary widely. The conditions listed above are due to hereditary causes, infection, trauma, autoimmune disorders, nutritional deficiencies, allergy, secondary causes, growths, and tumors. Some causes and risk factors associated with inherited genetic conditions are not modifiable. Others might be avoidable by limiting exposure to trauma and infection.

How to Diagnose Corneal Disease?

Your doctor or eye doctor will review your medical history and perform a careful eye examination. The cornea is examined in detail using a slit lamp microscope. Testing methods include:

  • Topography
  • Keratometry
  • Pachymetry
  • Specialized microscopy
  • Assessment of the tear film
  • Cultures, biopsies, or blood tests are also necessary

Treatment for Corneal Disease

Treatment is made for the individual disease and the individual patient. Treatments might include medications, laser treatment, or surgery, depending on the condition. Infections are typically treated with medical eye drops. Autoimmune disorders are best treated by addressing the underlying disease. To treat intraocular pressure caused by glaucoma and other factors you can use:

When is Corneal Transplant Needed?

Your eye doctor may recommend an immediate corneal transplant if your vision cannot be corrected satisfactorily with eyeglasses or contact lenses. A corneal transplant is also recommended if you experience painful swelling that cannot be relieved by medications or special contact lenses.

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